Extensive research both on hydraulic stability and structural integrity has proven Xbloc to be the most reliable single layer armour unit. Experience acquired during a decade of Xbloc Projects all around the world under various conditions make theory come true as the armour units have proven to perform outstanding.
Excellent hydraulic stability
- For concept design a Kd value [stability coefficient in the Hudson formula] of 16 [trunk section] and 13 [head section] should be applied;
- The stability coefficient of the Xbloc is the same for breaking and non-breaking waves;
- Xbloc has a safety margin of at least 20 % without damage to the armour layer. See also: Hydraulic Performance of Xbloc Armour Units.
- Xbloc units naturally find a stable position on the slope;
- Self repairing of the Xbloc armour layer after damage is enhanced by automatic interlocking;
- The Xbloc unit is simple to place, due to the straightforward placement principle.
Low wave overtopping
- The highly porous armour layer minimizes wave overtopping. For more information see: CLASH test results: Overtopping performance of different armour units for rubble mound breakwaters;
- For guidance on overtopping coefficients see: Overtopping and Wave reflection.
Low wave reflection
Outstanding structural integrity
The structural integrity of the Xbloc was evaluated by using:
- Prototype drop tests [The Netherlands, Georgia, Ireland and U.A.E.];
- Finite element calculations.
All studies and project experience prove the Xbloc to be a structurally strong unit able to cope with the loads that can be expected during its lifetime from manufacture to operation. Ordinary concrete C25/30 can be used for the production of Xbloc armour units. Read more:
Placement and structural strength of Xbloc and other single layer armour units.
Structural Integrity of the Xbloc breakwater armour units prototype and numerical droptests.